Know Your Kidney Tests

Functions of Kidney

The kidneys play a vital role in maintaining our health. One of the most important job, is filtering waste materials from the blood and expel them from the body as urine. They also help control the levels of water and various essential minerals in the body. In addition, they play an important role in the production of vitamin D, red blood cells and hormones that regulate blood pressure

Symptoms of kidney problems

If  one has, anyone of these symptoms it might indicate some problem with the kidneys :

  • high blood pressure
  • blood in the urine
  • frequent urges to urinate
  • difficulty beginning urination
  • painful urination
  • swelling of the hands and feet due to a buildup of fluids in the body

A single symptom may not mean something serious. However, when occurring simultaneously, these symptoms suggest that your kidneys aren’t working properly. Kidney function tests can help determine the reason.

Types Of Tests for Kidney Problems

Blood Tests

Serum Creatinine

Creatinine is a waste product that comes from the normal wear and tear on muscles of the body. Creatinine levels in the blood can vary depending on age, race and body size. A creatinine level of greater than 1.2 for women and greater than 1.4 for men may be an early sign that the kidneys are not working properly. As kidney disease progresses, the level of creatinine in the blood rises

Glomerular Filtration Rate(GFR)

This test is a measure of how well the kidneys are removing wastes and excess fluid from the blood. It is calculated from the serum creatinine level using age and gender. Normal GFR can vary according to age (as you get older it can decrease). The normal value for GFR is 90 or above. A GFR below 60 is a sign that the kidneys are not working properly. Once the GFR decreases below 15, one is at high risk for needing treatment for kidney failure, such as dialysis or a kidney transplant

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

Urea nitrogen comes from the breakdown of protein in the foods you eat. A normal BUN level is between 7 and 20. As kidney function decreases, the BUN level rises.

Imaging Tests

Ultra Sound

This test uses sound waves to get a picture of the kidney. It may be used to look for abnormalities in size or position of the kidneys or for obstructions such as stones or tumors.

CT Scan

18

This imaging technique uses X-rays to picture the kidneys. It may also be used to look for structural abnormalities and the presence of obstructions.  This test may require the use of intravenous contrast dye which can be of concern for those with kidney disease.       .

Kidney Biopsy

A biopsy may be done occasionally for one of the following reasons:

  • to identify a specific disease process and determine whether it will respond to treatment
  • to evaluate the amount of damage that has occurred in the kidney
  • to find out why a kidney transplant may not be doing well

A kidney biopsy is performed by using a thin needle with a sharp cutting edge to slice small pieces of kidney tissue for examination under a microscope.

Urine Tests

Some urine tests require only a couple tablespoons of urine. Other tests require collection of all urine produced for a full 24 hours. A 24-hour urine test shows how much urine your kidneys produce, can give an more accurate measurement of how well your kidney are working and how much protein leaks from the kidney into the urine in one day.

Urinalysis

Includes microscopic examination of a urine sample as well as a dipstick test. The dipstick is a chemically treated strip, which is dipped into a urine sample. The strip changes color in the presence of abnormalities such as excess amounts of protein, blood, pus, bacteria and sugar. A urinalysis can help to detect a variety of kidney and urinary tract disorders, including chronic kidney disease, diabetes, bladder infections and kidney stones.

Urine Protein

This may be done as part of a urinalysis or by a separate dipstick test. An excess amount of protein in the urine is called proteinuria (pro-TEEN-yu-ree-uh). A positive dipstick test (1+ or greater) should be confirmed using a more specific dipstick test such as an albumin specific dipstick or a quantitative measurement such as an albumin-to-creatinine ratio

Microalbuminuria

This is a more sensitive dipstick test which can detect a tiny amount of protein called albumin in the urine. People who have an increased risk of developing kidney disease, such as those with diabetes or high blood pressure, should have this test or an albumin-to-creatinine ratio if their standard dipstick test for proteinuria is negative.

Creatinine Clearance

Creatinine is a waste product that comes from the normal wear and tear on muscles of the body.  Creatinine clearance test compares the creatinine in a 24-hour sample of urine to the creatinine level in your blood to show how much waste products the kidneys are filtering out each minute.

mahi profile

All such tests are available with Mahi Diagnostic,Opp Picadily Hotel,Kanpur Road,Alambagh, Lucknow. For any query pl call on 0522 4074409

https://www.facebook.com/mahidiagnostics/?ref=bookmarks

Decoding Blood Tests

Blood tests are of so many kinds that often one tends to get confused just by the names themselves. So we try to demystify some commonly done blood tests, under what conditions are they done and what they mean :-

 

 Complete Blood Count (CBC) Test

A routine blood test it gives information about the cells in your blood. A complete blood count will include various investigations. Abnormally high or low counts can indicate the presence of anemia, infections, clotting problems, blood cancers and immune system disorders.

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)

Basically this is a directional test only. It just informs that there is a problem, but does not show where the problem is or what is causing it. It is the rate at which red blood cells settle down when the blood is placed under specified conditions in an hour.. The rate tends to be higher among women especially during menstruation and pregnancy. High ESR values are seen in acute and chronic inflammations, infections, cancers and autoimmune diseases. ESR value decreases in congestive heart failure, hypofibrinogenemia, polycythaemia and sickle cell anaemia. Drugs like aspirin, cortisone, and quinine may also decrease ESR.

Blood Culture

This is done when infection is suspected. It is a test to detect the presence of microorganisms like bacteria and fungi in the blood. The sample is placed in a culture media, it is then incubated in a controlled environment and observed for growth in the microorganisms. 2-3 blood cultures are usually done before the result is considered negative.

Blood Typing and Cross-matching

A blood typing test is used to identify blood group. The Blood group is determined by two special proteins (antigens), the ABO antigen and the Rhesus antigen.

Cross matching is the process that is done prior to a blood transfusion to test compatibility of the donor and the intended recipient. It is important that anyone who receives blood is given blood that matches their blood group to prevent the immune system from attacking the red blood cells. Cross matching is also used during pregnancy as there is a small risk that the unborn child may have a different blood group from the mother.

Blood Glucose test

It is used to diagnose and monitor diabetes. Glucose is a type of sugar that the body uses for energy. People with diabetes often have high levels of glucose in their blood.

  • Routine blood glucose tests are done at any time with no preparation. The normal range is 80 to 110 mg/dL. Shortly after eating, the blood glucose level may rise temporarily up to 140 mg/dL. With repeated tests, a glucose level greater than 200 mg/dL may indicate diabetes.
  • A postprandial glucose test determines the amount of glucose in the blood after a meal. A 2-hour postprandial blood sugar measures blood glucose exactly 2 hours after eating a meal. By then blood sugar usually goes back down in healthy people, but it may still be elevated in people with diabetes. Diabetes is present if the amount of blood-sugar two hours after a meal is greater than 200 mg% on two separate occasions. Blood-sugar values between 140 and 200 mg% is termed ‘impaired glucose tolerance’.
  • For pre-prandial (fasting) blood glucose tests, you should not eat anything for several hours before the test. Normal fasting blood sugar is between 90 and 130 mg/dL. Diagnosis of diabetes is made when two separate blood tests show your fasting blood glucose level greater than or equal to 140 mg/dL.

Home Blood Sugar Testing – A blood glucose meter is an electronic device for measuring the blood glucose at home. The blood glucose test is performed by pricking your finger with a small, sharp needle (lancet), putting a drop of blood on a chemically active disposable test strip and then placing the strip into a digital meter that displays your blood sugar level. Within few seconds, the blood glucose level will be shown on the digital display.

Lipoprotein Panel

It is a blood test to show whether you’re at risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). It measures the levels of LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood. You may need to fast for 9 to 12 hours before a lipoprotein panel.

Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test

Your immune system produces specific antibodies in response to infections (such as HIV) or allergy (such as peanut allergy). An ELISA test checks for the associated antibody in the blood.

Blood test for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Some viral sexually transmitted diseases are screened by drawing blood samples. Blood tests for STD include testing for the following diseases:

  • HIV / AIDS – blood drawn three to six months after possible exposure can detect HIV antibodies
  • Hepatitis B – blood examined for antibodies.
  • Syphilis – test done three months after possible exposure can detect antibodies
  • Herpes – blood examined for antibodies; however, many standard tests are not accurate
  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhoea

Western Blot

It is the confirmatory HIV test. The period of time between HIV infection and the appearance of anti-HIV antibodies in the blood is called the window period. During this period the test result is negative. This test is also used for screening people in high-risk groups, pregnant women,  organ donors and blood donors.

Liver Function Tests

When the liver is damaged, it releases enzymes into the blood and levels of proteins produced by the liver decreases. The test measures the levels of these enzymes and proteins. It is used to help diagnose certain liver conditions, such as hepatitis (liver infection), cirrhosis (liver scarring) and alcoholic liver disease (liver damage caused by excessive alcohol consumption).

Genetic Tests

Gene test – Polymerase chain reaction (DNA Testing) – A gene test is used when a specific genetic mutation is suspected to be responsible for a person’s symptoms. DNA is extracted from your blood sample and searched for the suspected genetic mutation. Genetic conditions that can be diagnosed using a gene test include – Hemophilia: blood’s ability to clot (thicken) affected; Cystic fibrosis: build-up of sticky mucus in the lungs; Sickle cell anemia: shortage of normal red blood cells and Polycystic kidney disease: cysts inside the kidneys.

Chromosome testing (Karyotyping) – It is a more general test which is used when a person’s symptoms are suspected to be caused by a gene-related problem but the specific gene is not known. Chromosome testing is often used to test children with physical or developmental problems without any apparent cause and for couples who have experienced repeated miscarriages.

Genetic Screening – Similar to gene testing, but it is used in people who have no obvious symptoms. Genetic screening is carried out during pregnancy (antenatal screening) to check for common genetic conditions, such as Down’s syndrome (extra genetic material cause’s delays in the mental and physical development of a child), Sickle cell anemia and Thalassemia. It is also done with people who are thought to be at risk of developing a genetic condition like Huntington’s disease (a disorder in which nerve cells in certain parts of the brain degenerate).

Calcium and Electrolyte levels in blood serum

Calcium is an important mineral present in the body. Electrolytes are minerals like sodium, chloride, bicarbonate and potassium, which help maintain fluid levels and acid-base balance in the body.

Protein Electrophoresis

This test measures specific proteins in the blood to help identify diseases. Different elements of a blood serum are separated into individual components like albumin and globulin (alpha1, alpha2, beta and gamma) proteins. The test is used to screen variety of diseases like multiple myeloma (plasma cell cancer), macroglobulinemia, amyloidosis (group of diseases that result from the abnormal deposition of amyloid protein in various tissues of the body), liver dysfunction and chronic fluid-retaining conditions and to find the cause of hypogammaglobulinemia (HGG).

Blood tests for kidney function

This measures levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine which are waste products filtered out of the body by the kidneys. Abnormal BUN and creatinine levels may be signs of a kidney disease.

Blood enzyme tests used to check Troponin and Creatine

Troponin and creatine tests are ordered when patients have chest pain or other heart attack signs and symptoms. Troponin is a muscle protein which leaks out into your blood when muscle or heart cells are injured. A blood product called Creatine Kinase-MB (muscle brain) is released when the heart muscle is damaged.

Northern Blot (RNA testing)

It is a technique for identifying specific sequences of RNA. It is used in cancer research and genetic identification between species. It can be used to observe a particular gene’s expression pattern in infection, over the course of treatment, in the rejection of transplanted organ, etc. Northern blot analysis has also been used to detect cancerous pancreatic cells and tissues.

mahi profile

https://www.facebook.com/mahidiagnostics/?ref=bookmarks

All such tests are done at Mahi Diagnostic, Opp Picadily Hotel, Kanpur Road, Alambagh, Lucknow. For any query pl call on 0522 4074409

 

What is Osteoporosis and How to Diagnose it.

Osteoporosis happens when bone density decreases and the body stops producing as much bone as it did before.

It can affect both males and females, but it is most likely to occur in women after menopause because of the sudden decrease in estrogen the hormone that normally protects against osteoporosis.

As the bones become weaker, there is a higher risk of a fracture during a fall or even a fairly minor knock.

Signs and symptoms of Osteoporosis  include:

  • Your joint may hurt during or after movement.
  • Your joint may feel tender when you apply light pressure to it
  • Loss of flexibility. …
  • Grating sensation. …
  • Bone spurs.

dreamstime_xs_42169502

 

How osteoporosis is diagnosed

A bone density test can help you determine if you have osteoporosis or are at risk.

How do you know if you have osteoporosis or if you are at risk? This is a common question, and one to get answered sooner rather than later.

Because bone loss typically happens gradually and painlessly, the first sign of osteoporosis can be breaking a bone, often more easily than you’d expect. But it is possible to determine if you have osteoporosis, even before a bone is broken, by getting a bone density test. The test can also detect if your bone density is lower than normal for a person of your age and sex. Bone loss that has not reached the stage of an osteoporosis diagnosis is called osteopenia.

 

Bone density testing

A bone density test is as close as your doctor can come to predicting your future bone health. The test results will show if you have osteopenia or osteoporosis, and how susceptible your bones are to fracture. A bone density test is the best way to predict fracture risk.

The test uses X-rays to measure how many grams of calcium and other bone minerals are in a square centimeter of bone. Generally, the higher the mineral content, the denser the bone is. And the denser bones are, the less likely they are to fracture.

Central Densitometers

These machines, are used to measure the density of the central, stabilizing parts of the skeleton, such as the spine and hip. This type of densitometer provides the most accurate bone density testing and can predict your potential risk of fracture.

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A DXA machine uses two different X-ray beams to increase the precision of what it’s measuring. As you lie on a padded platform, two mechanical arms containing an X-ray source and detector above and below your body are aligned. DXA is most often performed on the narrow neck of the upper leg bone (femur), just below the hip joint, as well as the lumbar vertebrae, which form the lower part of the spine. DXA testing is painless and takes only a few minutes.

Quantitative computerized tomography (QCT). This instrument measures bone density using computerized tomography (CT). Similar to having a CT scan, you lie on a movable padded table that slides into a large cylinder, where X-ray images are obtained from all angles. QCT is most often used to measure density in the vertebrae and the part of the femur below the hip.

220px-Bone_density_scanner

Peripheral Densitometers

Smaller devices are used to measure bone density on the periphery of the skeleton, such as in the wrist and heel bone. Although they are more portable, these densitometers are less accurate at predicting fracture risk. If your test on a peripheral device is positive for osteopenia or osteoporosis, then your doctor might recommend a follow-up scan of your spine or hip to confirm the diagnosis.

Quantitative ultrasound (QUS). This procedure is often called heel ultrasound because it typically measures bone density in the heel bone. Instead of X-ray radiation, QUS sends high-frequency sound waves through your heel while you rest your bare foot on the instrument. This type of densitometer measures the reflection of sound waves. Denser bone reflects sound waves back to the device sooner.

Peripheral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDXA). This device is a compact, portable DXA scanner. Using X-rays, pDXA measures bone density in the wrist or heel. It’s quick and accurate.

Peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT).This portable version of QCT measures the bone density of the wrist or hand.

Other types of testing, including 3-D imaging and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are also used to diagnose Osteoporosis.

19

 

All such diagnostic facilities are available at Mahi Diagnostice Centre. For any query pl call : 0522 4074409 or 8960844447.

mahi profile

https://www.facebook.com/mahidiagnostics/

Diagnosis of Digestive Dysfunctions

In order to reach a diagnosis for digestive disorders, the Doctor needs to take  a thorough and accurate medical history of the patient, noting the symptoms he has experienced and any other pertinent information. A physical exam is also done to help assess the problem more completely.

In some cases the patient need to undergo a more extensive diagnostic evaluation. This may include lab tests, imaging tests, and/or endoscopic procedures. These tests may include any, or a combination of, the following:

Lab tests

  • Faecal occult blood test. A faecal occult blood test checks for hidden (occult) blood in the stool.
  • Stool culture. A stool culture checks for the presence of abnormal bacteria in the digestive tract that may cause diarrhoea and other problems.

Imaging tests

  • Barium beefsteak meal. During this test, the patient eats a meal containing barium (a metallic, chalky liquid used to coat the inside of organs so that they will show up on an X-ray). This allows the radiologist to watch the stomach as it digests the meal. The amount of time it takes for the barium meal to be digested and leave the stomach gives the healthcare provider an idea of how well the stomach is working and helps to find emptying problems that may not show up on the liquid barium X-ray.

barium beef

  • Colorectal transit study. This test shows how well food moves through the colon. The patient swallows capsules containing small markers which are visible on X-ray. The patient follows a high-fiber diet during the course of the test. The movement of the markers through the colon is monitored with abdominal X-rays taken several times 3 to 7 days after the capsule is swallowed.
  • Computed tomography scan (CT or CAT scan). This is an imaging test that uses X-rays and a computer to make detailed images of the body. A CT scan shows details of the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays.

18

  • Defecography is an X-ray of the anorectal area that evaluates completeness of stool elimination, identifies anorectal abnormalities, and evaluates rectal muscle contractions and relaxation.
  • Lower GI (gastrointestinal) series (also called barium enema). A lower GI series is a test that examines the rectum, the large intestine, and the lower part of the small intestine. Barium is given into the rectum as an enema. An X-ray of the abdomen shows strictures (narrowed areas), obstructions (blockages), and other problems.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is a diagnostic test that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body. The patient lies on a bed that moves into the cylindrical MRI machine. The machine takes a series of pictures of the inside of the body using a magnetic field and radio waves. The computer enhances the pictures produced. The test is painless, and does not involve exposure to radiation. Because the MRI machine is like a tunnel, some people are claustrophobic or unable to hold still during the test. They may be given a sedative to help them relax. Metal objects cannot be present in the MRI room, so people with pacemakers or metal clips or rods inside the body cannot have this test done. All jewelry must be removed before the test.

19

  • Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). This test uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to view the bile ducts. The machine uses radio waves and magnets to scan internal tissues and organs.
  • Oropharyngeal motility (swallowing) study. This is a study in which the patient is given small amounts of a liquid containing barium to drink with a bottle, spoon, or cup. A series of X-rays is taken to evaluate what happens as the liquid is swallowed.
  • Radioisotope gastric-emptying scan. During this test, the patient eats food containing a radioisotope, which is a slightly radioactive substance that will show up on a scan. The dosage of radiation from the radioisotope is very small and not harmful, but allows the radiologist to see the food in the stomach and how quickly it leaves the stomach, while the patient lies under a machine.
  • Ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves and a computer to create images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Ultrasounds are used to view internal organs as they function, and to assess blood flow through them.

Endoscopic procedures

  • Colonoscopy is a procedure that allows the doctor to view the entire length of the large intestine (colon). It can often help identify abnormal growths, inflamed tissue, ulcers, and bleeding.
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). ERCP is a procedure that allows the doctor to diagnose and treat problems in the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas. The procedure combines X-ray and the use of an endoscope.
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (also called EGD or upper endoscopy). An EGD (upper endoscopy) is a procedure that allows the doctor to examine the inside of the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum with an endoscope. This is guided into the mouth and throat, then into the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum. The endoscope allows the doctor to view the inside of this area of the body, as well as to insert instruments through the scope for the removal of a sample of tissue for biopsy (if necessary).
  • A sigmoidoscopy is a diagnostic procedure that allows the doctor to examine the inside of a portion of the large intestine, and is helpful in identifying the causes of diarrhoea, abdominal pain, constipation, abnormal growths, and bleeding. Other procedures
  • Anorectal manometry. This test helps determine the strength of the muscles in the rectum and anus. These muscles normally tighten to hold in a bowel movement and relax when a bowel movement is passed. Anorectal manometry is helpful in evaluating anorectal malformations and Hirschsprung disease, among other problems.
  • Oesophageal manometry. This test helps determine the strength of the muscles in the oesophagus. It is useful in evaluating gastroesophageal reflux and swallowing abnormalities.
  • Oesophageal pH monitoring. An oesophageal pH monitor measures the acidity inside of the oesophagus. It is helpful in evaluating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
  • Gastric manometry. This test measures electrical and muscular activity in the stomach. The doctor passes a thin tube down the patient’s throat into the stomach. This tube contains a wire that takes measurements of the electrical and muscular activity of the stomach as it digests foods and liquids. This helps show how the stomach is working, and if there is any delay in digestion.
  • Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). This test uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to obtain pictures of the bile ducts. The machine uses radio waves and magnets to scan internal organs and tissues.

mahi profile

All such diagnostic procedures are availale at Mahi Diagnostic, Opp Piccadily Hotel,Kanpur Road. Call 0522 4074409 / 8960844447 for any queries.

https://www.facebook.com/mahidiagnostics/?ref=bookmarks

Why is it important to diagnose recurring headache?

An occasional head ache occurs to everyone but once they become a regular routine or the frequency of recurrence increases, it is high time you meet a Doctor and get yourself diagnosed. The correct diagnosis of a headache is necessary in order to begin an effective treatment plan. Early visits to your doctor are made to establish what type or classification of headache you have.

A Doctor will prescribe some diagnostic tests. We mention some tests which are done to estimate what causes those frequent headaches.

Diagnostic tests

Additional diagnostic tests might be needed to rule out other medical conditions. These tests are listed below. Keep in mind that laboratory tests are not helpful in diagnosing migraine , cluster, or tension type headaches.

 Blood chemistry and urinalysis: These tests are used to determine other medical conditions — including diabetes, thyroid problems and infections — that can cause headaches.

  • Computed Tomography (CT Scan)X-rays and computers are used to produce images of a cross-section of the body. A CT scan of the head might be recommended if you are getting daily or almost daily headaches to help rule out other causes of headaches.

18

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)This test produces very clear pictures, or images, of the brain without the use of X-rays. MRI uses a large magnet, radio waves, and a computer to produce these images. An MRI provides information about the structure and biochemistry of the brain. An MRI might be recommended if you are getting daily or almost daily headaches. It might also be recommended if a CT scan does not show definitive results. In addition, an MRI scan is used to evaluate certain parts of the brain that are not as easily viewed with CT scans, such as the spine at the level of the neck and the back portion of the brain.

19

  • Sinus X-ray: Although the CT scan and MRI provide more details, your doctor might use this test if your symptoms seem to indicate sinus problems.
  • Ophthalmology evaluation: An eye pressure test performed by an eye doctor (ophthalmologist) will rule out glaucoma or pressure on the optic nerve as causes of headaches.
  • Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap)The removal of spinal fluid from the spinal canal. This procedure is only done to rule out conditions that might be affecting the brain and spinal cord. This test is used only if the symptoms call for it. It can cause a headache for a few hours afterward.
  • CT Angiography If your doctor suspects you may have an aneurysm, you may have to undergo CT Angiography

 

mahi profile

All kinds of tests are available under one roof at Mahi Diagnostics, opp Piccadily Hotel , Kanpur Road. Pl call on 4074409,8960844447 for any query.

https://www.facebook.com/mahidiagnostics

Imaging Techniques to Diagnose Recurring Hip Pain

Nowadays, nagging hip pain has become quite common not only in elderly people but youngsters are also complaining of it.

We explain some imaging techniques by which the exact cause of the pain can be identified and corrective measures taken thereon.

Why is Imaging Needed during Hip Pain

Imaging of the hip needs to be complementary to the clinical history and physical examination.

Clinical tests are adapted to identify the source of pain as intra-articular or extra-articular.

Let us see different imaging techniques used for analyzing the cause of Hip Pain.

 X-Ray

1

Older patients may suffer from osteoarthritis but today younger patients also suffer from Hip pain due to various reasons. X Rays are the first step towards diagnosing the cause of the same.

Plain radiography allows us to categorize the hip as normal or dysplastic or with impingement signs .Besides these, pathologic processes like osteoarthritis, inflammatory diseases, infection, or tumors can also be identified .

MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging

19

Many pathological conditions of the hip are detected early by MRI due to its high soft tissue resolution and sensitivity. Its accuracy in studying acute hip pain in children has proved to be superior to ultrasound and plan film radiography.

MR imaging is considered  mainly when surgery is considered, due to the ability of MRI to portray the whole section of the femoral neck surface, as well as to image the labrum and articular cartilage.

 Computed Tomography

Due to radiation concerns, CT has been relegated after MRI in the study of intra-articular causes of hip pain. The only exception where CT is considered superior to MRI is in bone tumors, because of its ability in characterizing matrix calcifications, and in depicting the anatomy of acute traumatic fractures.

 Ultrasound

4

Ultrasound is the first-choice technique for diagnosis of newborns hip dysplasia. In experienced hands with appropriate technology, ultrasound can also be useful during the first year of life . Although it shows higher initial costs caused, it leads to significant reduction in the total number and overall costs of dysplastic hips undergoing operative and non operative treatment

Nuclear Medicine

Bone scanning in patients with hip pain can be complementary to other imaging studies, mainly in indeterminate bone lesions to clarify whether it is an active lesion with abnormal radiotracer accumulation.

mahi profile

All kinds of imaging facilities are available under one roof in Mahi Diagnostics. Pl. call 4074409 or 8960844447 for any details.

https://www.facebook.com/mahidiagnostics/?ref=bookmarks

Diabetes : Some Important Tests for an early diagnosis

Diabetes is often also called the silent killer – why? Simply because, if undetected / untreated, it causes a lot many problems to some of our important body parts. So how do we recognise that we might be having diabetes or are at the verge of getting it?

If you habe any of these symptoms :

  • increased thirst,
  • frequent urination,
  • unexplained weight reduction,
  • increased appetite, and
  • feel a tingling sensation in your hands or feet,

chances are that you are a either a diabetic or are on the threshold.

This is the reason why regular checking of the glucose level in the body is so important. Any of the symptoms mentioned above can erupt suddenly.

It is suggested that individuals aged 35 and above should get a blood sugar screening done regularly, at least once a year if the initial test is normal.

Some tests which are important are as such:

HbA1C:

This blood test shows your normal average glucose level for as long as three months. It quantifies the rate of glucose connected to haemoglobin and the protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells.

Fasting Blood Sugar Test:

In this test your blood sample is collected after an overnight fasting period of 8-10 hours.. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it’s 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes.

A Complete Blood Count (CBC):

This is a blood test used to evaluate an individual’s overall health and discover a wide range of disorders, ranging from anemia, to leukemia.

The CBC test measures several components and features of one’s blood.Any abnormal increases or decreases in these cell counts as revealed in a CBC test may indicate that one might have an underlying medical condition that requires to be diagnosed further.

Post Prandial Glucose Test (PPBS):

This is a pre and post meal blood test which highlights the measure of glucose in the blood. In this test Glucose is measured in the blood particularly after a meal.

Ordinarily, blood glucose levels elevate marginally after eating a meal.

A 2-hour PPBS test measures blood glucose precisely 2 hours in the wake of eating a meal. By this point glucose has generally retreated down in healthy individuals, yet it might in any case be raised in individuals with diabetes. Subsequently, it serves as a trial for whether an individual may have diabetes, or of whether an individual who has diabetes is effectively controlling their blood glucose levels.

Cholesterol test:

The risk of heart disease rises in case of individuals suffering from diabetes, which makes it inevitable for them to have a blood test to screen their cholesterol levels more frequently

 Triglycerides:

A fat which is typically found in . Also known as the bad fat , increase in its levels increases the risk of coronary artery disease, especially in women.

A person’s triglyceride levels are measured with a blood test along with testing cholesterol levels in the blood. Normal triglycerides are below 150. Levels above 200 are high.

If an individual is :

  • Overweight
  • Does not Exercise
  • Smokes regularly
  • Is Alcoholic
  • Has Genetic disorders

In all such cases the triglycerides will be high.

Triglyceride levels may be lowered with a combination lifestyle changes like:

  • Losing Weight
  • Healthy Diet
  • Regular Exercise

Creatinine Blood Test:

A creatinine blood test measures the level of creatinine in the blood. Creatine is found in your muscle. Creatinine levels in the blood can provide your specialist with data about how well your kidneys are functioning.

Electrolytes:

This is a blood test that measures the main electrolytes in the body which includes sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate (CO2)—this can be used to evaluate symptoms of heart disease and monitor the effectiveness of treatments for high blood pressure, heart failure and liver and kidney disease.

Insulin Auto Antibodies (IAA):

This tests detects the antibodies targeting insulin, Along with attacking beta cells, the immune system in people with type 1 diabetes also targets insulin..

C-Peptide:

This test measures how much C-peptide is in the blood of an individual. Since levels of this peptide generally match insulin levels in the body, the test is mostly used to indicate how much insulin an individual’s body is producing. Normally Low levels of C-peptide and insulin usually point to type 1 diabetes.

Micro Albumin Test:

This test looks for minuscule amounts of albumin in your urine. The test can find out whether diabetes has damaged your kidneys.

Albumin is a protein needed for tissue growth and healing. It can leak into your urine when your kidneys aren’t working as they should.

Because such small amounts of albumin may not show up during routine urine testing, healthcare providers use this test to look for changes in albumin levels that mean complications from diabetes or other conditions. If kidney disease is found early, it may be treated successfully.

Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure Early detection of kidney damage is important to prevent long-term complications.

People with diabetes who are between 12 and 70 years old should have a urine test for microalbumin at least once a year. Anyone with type 1 diabetes should begin testing after 5 years of having the disease. Those with type 2 diabetes should be tested when they are diagnosed and then each year after that.

If you have high blood pressure, talk with your doctor about how often you should be tested

 

mahi profile

All such tests are available under one roof in Mahi Diagnostics, situated on Kanpur Road, Opp. Picadily Hotel. One can call on 4074409 / 896084444 for further details.

https://www.facebook.com/mahidiagnostics/?ref=bookmarks